Family: Pinaceae, Pine view all from this family
Description Large evergreen coniferous tree. Crown wide, variable. Needles grow in a single flat plane, 3–6 cm. long and 2 mm. wide by 0.5 mm. thick, glossy dark green above, two green-white bands of stomata below, slightly notched at the tip. Leaf arrangement spiral on the shoot, each leaf variably twisted at the base so they all lie in two more-or-less flat ranks on either side of the shoot. Cones 6–12 cm. long and 3.5–4.5 cm. broad, with about 100-150 scales; scale bracts short, hidden in the closed cone. Winged seeds released when cones disintegrate about 6 months after pollination.
Dimensions Height: 30-61 m. (100-200 ft.)
Diameter: 0.5-1 m. (1 1/2-3 1/2 ft.).
Habitat Canyons & valleys, Mountains.
Range California, Rocky Mountains, Northwest, Western Canada.
Discussion Wood soft and not very strong; used for paper making, packing crates and other cheap construction work. Foliage has an attractive scent, sometimes used for Christmas trees and decoration. Planted as an ornamental in large parks.
Grand fir provides good thermal and hiding cover, often close to water, for big game animals. Young trees provide good cover for grouse and small mammals including squirrels, chipmunks, and pikas. Roosting sites for grouse, pileated woodpecker, Williamson's sapsucker, pygmy nuthatch, Vaux's swift, and red crossbill.