Track Like narrow split hearts, pointed end forward, about 2–3" (50–75 mm) long; dewclaws may print as twin dots behind main prints in snow or soft mud. In shallow snow (1"/25 mm deep), buck may drag its feet, leaving drag marks ahead of prints; in deeper snow, both buck and doe drag feet. Straddle 5–6" (125–150 mm) wide. Stride, when walking, 1' (.3 m); when running, 6' (2 m) or more, and hindprints sometimes register ahead of foreprints; when leaping, 20' (6 m). Well-used trails are very noticeable, with numerous prints and damaged vegetation.
Sign Raggedly browsed vegetation, ripped rather than neatly snipped due to lack of upper incisors.
"Buck rubs": Polished scars or oblong sections where bark has been removed from bushes, saplings, or small trees, usually close to the ground; made when a buck lowers his head and rubs antlers against a tree to mark territory; trees chosen to fit antlers (e.g., a rub on a tree with a diameter of 4–5"/100–125 mm would have been made by a very large buck).
"Buck scrapes": Pawed depressions with broken branches about 3–6' (1–2 m) above the ground.
Bed: Shallow, oval, body-size depression in leaves or snow.
Scat: When browsing, almost always hard, dark, cylindrical pellets, about 3/4" (19 mm) long; sometimes round. When grazing on succulent vegetation, cylindrical and segmented, evenly massed.