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Ground holes?

I live in southern Ohio, and have just purchased a 5 acre property with a pond. Upon clearing the brush etc around the pond, and surrounding areas I have discovered hundreds of what look like snake holes. They are in various sizes from 1/2 inch to 1 1/2 inch in diameter. They occur heaviest around the pond, but extend throughout the whole property. In the 3 weeks of clearing I have only seen one green snake. We have disturbed several underground yellow jacket nests while mowing but never examined exactly where they were coming from, only knowing that they were from the ground. There is a very large population of frogs in the pond. We never see any animals using the holes, and they occur on average about 5 per square foot around the pond and get less frequent as you go further from the pond. There are no raised tunnels near the holes therefore excluding moles. Could these be bee's nests, snake holes, or some underground city of frogs?

Wildlife Expert - David Herlocker

These holes were probably made originally by small rodents such as mice or voles. Snakes do not create holes, but many species spend a large portion of their lives in and out of the burrows of rodents. Even the species we call burrowing snakes simply bury themselves in loose soil, they do not leave an opening at the surface.

All of the animals you have mentioned: snakes, yellow-jackets, frogs, and a dozen more use the burrows created by rodents (and a few other burrowing animals) for shelter. And yes, you could have an underground city of frogs down there. Amphibians that are active at night usually spend the day in the moist, cool habitat provided by an abandoned burrow. Go out there at night with a flashlight and be patient, you will see just how many critters are sharing your property.

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